This is Takao's blog. I am studying Athetic Training at University of South Florida. New entry comes out everyday(hopefully). Am I ever going to have the day when I have a good command of English just like native- speakers? Hope the day will come to me....
I am gonna post my essay which I worked on in Biomechanics class in the last semester.
I have played baseball for 13 years and broke my left shoulder when I was a college student in Japan. I couldn’t throw balls for long distance anymore. (I can play catch just for fun, but only in short distance). When I look back now, my shoulder injury seemed to be predestined to happen(was destined to happen) and I am sure that injury came from the lack of my awareness of warm-up. Although I had been anatomically inflexible and supposed to be more awareness about my body, I somehow failed to care about my body, especially around shoulders.
I regret about my absence of awareness,(I regret that I wasn't aware←more proper) and don't want an athlete to make (repeat) the same mistake as mine. And that own mistake(my own mistake or that mistakes), in a sense, inspired me to become an athletic trainer and and I decided to pursue my career in the sporting world. Now I am studying Sport Medicine so that I can get enough knowledge and experience as to prevent athletes from getting injury even though there are just few possibilities to get hurt.
Here is my essay. I focus specifically on shoulder mechanisms and the difference between full-can exercise and empty-can exercise. My friend, Katie, helped me check my grammar stuff and taught me many new expressions. Special thanks to Katie!!
New expression asprire 人が主語 I aspired to be an athletic trainer
inspire 物が主語 My own mistakes inspired me to be an athletic trainer.
起こるべくして起こる ；《be ～》 predestined to happen ↑ 宗教的な意味があるらしい。神に・・・みたいな。普通の英語では be destined to happenを使うといい。
pursue a career in pursue a career as ～としての道を進む pursue a career goal
pursue a career in the private sector 民間部門に職を求める He came to Japan in 2002 to pursue a career as a sumo wrestler. 力士になるために2002年に来日しました AS←～としてのの意。pursue arms control proposals designed to ～することを目的とした軍縮提案を推進する pursue beauty pursue an object pursue an artistic career 芸術を志す
Scapular kinematics during supraspinatus rehabilitation exercise ~Which is more useful, the "full can test" or the "empty can test,"~
Shoulder injuries often involve rotator cuff tears or impingement of these muscles, especially in supraspinatus. Many researchers have studied the function of supraspinatus and found the importance about this muscle. One example of this is that a study found that loss of normal supraspinatus muscle function will limit the effectiveness of the force couple formed with the middle deltoid to initiate humeral elevation and decrease the compressive force required to prevent excessive humeral head translation (Pearl). Thus, it can be said that restoration and maintenance of supraspinatus strength are important components in achieving optimal shoulder function, and strengthening of the supraspinatus is an important component of shoulder rehabilitation. Meanwhile, it is difficult to strengthen a specific muscle in the shoulder girdle because of its complexity. So, we should consider carefully about which exercises we should choose when we are in the process of shoulder rehabilitation. In this circumstance, Charles and his team did a study that is designed to find out the scapular kinematics during the supraspinatus rehabilitation and to determine which exercise, full-can exercise and empty-can exercise, are the best way to strengthen supraspinatus muscle in shoulder rehabilitation. This study is based on a hypothesis that Scapular downward rotation, internal rotation, and anterior tipping during the empty-can exercise are increased when compared with the full-can exercise. To determine whether this hypothesis is true or not, they did compared study using a device, which is called “electromagnetic tracking system”. In this study, 20 (10 males and 10 females) participants performed full-can and empty-can exercises while an electromagnetic tracking system was used to collect three-dimensional scapular kinematics data. Scapular angles at 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees of the ascending and descending phases of humeral elevation were compared using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The result shows that there was more scapular anterior tipping and internal rotation during the empty-can exercise at all sampled humeral elevation angles except at 30 degrees of the descending phase for anterior/posterior tipping. From this result, they concluded that scapular anterior tipping and internal rotation are increased during the empty-can exercise, whereas scapular upward rotation was not different between exercises. It means that increased scapular internal rotation and anterior tipping decrease the volume of the supraspinatus outlet during the empty-can exercise. They also cited that, when maintenance of the subacromial space is important, use of the full-can exercise seems most appropriate for selective strengthening of the supraspinatus muscle. On the other hand, their method of study may include some issues that prevent to determine that their study is absolutely correct. One of those is about the device; they used an electoromagnetic tracking system to collect three three-demensional scapular kinematic data. But, this device has a possibility that it cannot capture accurate scapular motion because of its complex system. One study points out the complex determination of positions and orientations from its underlying raw sensor measurements results in complicated, non-uniform error distributions over the specified measurement volume (Frantz). However, other similar studied also concluded that full-can exercise is more appreciate training for suprasinatus strength using other device such as manual muscle testing and Electromyography. In light of their conclusion, we can determine that full-can exercise is most effective to strengthen supraspinatus muscle selectively. As I mentioned previously, it is important to choose proper exercises in order to strengthen a specific muscle in shoulder rehabilitation. Thus, taking care of their conclusion is useful to practice an effective rehabilitation in clinical.